Tilghman Island is a census-designated place (CDP) in Talbot County, Maryland, USA. The population was 854 at the 2000 census.
The island is known in the land records of the province of Mary-Land as Great Choptank Island, but took on the names of a succession of its owners. When granted to Seth Foster in 1659, it naturally became known locally as Foster’s Island, and so on. The Tilghman family owned it for over a century, beginning with Matthew Tilghman in 1752, and they were the last family to own it. It has remained Tilghman’s Island ever since. The community and the post office are simply Tilghman, however.